Code of the District of Columbia

§ 2–1401.02. Definitions.

The following words and terms when used in this chapter have the following meanings:

(1) “Administrative Procedure Act” means the “District of Columbia Administrative Procedure Act,” (§ 2-501 et seq.).

(2) “Age” means 18 years of age or older.

(3) “Chairman” means the duly appointed Chairman of the District of Columbia Commission on Human Rights.

(4) “Commission” means the Commission on Human Rights, as established under subchapter IV of Unit A of this chapter.

(4A) "Contraception" means any device, medication, or practice designed or employed to prevent pregnancy, including emergency contraception, the use of which would be lawful in the District.

(5) “Council” means the Council of the District of Columbia as established by § 1-204.01(a).

(5A) “Disability” means a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more of the major life activities of an individual having a record of such an impairment or being regarded as having such an impairment.

(6) “Director” means the Director of the District of Columbia Office of Human Rights, or a designate.

(7) “District” means the District of Columbia.

(7A) “Domestic partner” shall have the same meaning as provided in § 32-701(3).

(7B) “Domestic partnership” shall have the same meaning as provided in § 32-701(4).

(7C) "Domestic violence" shall have the same meaning as provided in § 4-551(1).

(8) “Educational institution” means any public or private institution including an academy, college, elementary or secondary school, extension course, kindergarten, nursery, school system or university; and a business, nursing, professional, secretarial, technical, or vocational school; and includes an agent of an educational institution.

(9)(A) "Employee" means an individual employed by or seeking employment from an employer. The term "employee" includes an unpaid intern and an individual working or seeking work as an independent contractor.

(B) For the purposes of this paragraph, the term "independent contractor" does not mean a service vendor who provides a discrete service to an individual customer.

(10) “Employer” means any person who, for compensation, employs an individual, except for the employer’s parent, spouse, or children, engaged in work in and about the employer’s household; any person acting in the interest of such employer, directly or indirectly; and any professional association.

(11) “Employment agency” means any person regularly undertaking or attempting, with or without compensation, to procure employees for an employer or to procure for employees, opportunities to work for an employer, and includes an agent of such a person.

(11A) “Familial status” means one or more individuals under 18 years of age being domiciled with: (1) a parent or other person having legal custody of the individual; or (2) the designee, with written authorization of the parent, or other persons having legal custody of individuals under 18 years of age. The protection afforded against discrimination on the basis of familial status shall apply to any person who is pregnant or in the process of securing legal custody of any individual under 18 years of age.

(11B) "Family member" means:

(A) With respect to an individual and genetic information, the spouse or domestic partner of the individual, dependent child (whether born to or placed for adoption with the individual), and all other individuals related by blood to the individual, spouse, domestic partner, or child; and

(B) With respect to an individual's status as a family member of a victim of domestic violence, sexual abuse, or stalking:

(i) A spouse, including the person identified by an individual as his or her domestic partner, as defined in § 32-701(3);

(ii) The parents of a spouse;

(iii) Children (including foster children and grandchildren);

(iv) The spouses of children;

(v) Parents;

(vi) Brothers and sisters;

(vii) The spouses of brothers and sisters;

(viii) A child who lives with an individual and for whom the individual permanently assumes and discharges parental responsibility; and

(ix) A person with whom the individual shares or has shared, for not less than the preceding 12 months, a mutual residence and with whom the individual maintains a committed relationship, as defined in § 32-701(1).

(12) “Family responsibilities” means the state of being, or the potential to become, a contributor to the support of a person or persons in a dependent relationship, irrespective of their number, including the state of being the subject of an order of withholding or similar proceedings for the purpose of paying child support or a debt related to child support.

(12A) "Gender-affirming care" means any social, psychological, behavioral, medical, or surgical intervention that is lawful in the District and that is designed or employed to support or affirm a person's gender identity or expression, including hormone therapy, behavioral healthcare, reproductive counseling, hair removal, speech therapy, facial reconstruction surgery, and gender affirmation surgery.

(12A-i) “Gender identity or expression” means a gender-related identity, appearance, expression, or behavior of an individual, regardless of the individual’s assigned sex at birth.

(12A-ii) “Genetic information” means information about the presence of any gene, chromosome, protein, or certain metabolites that indicate or confirm that an individual or an individual’s family member has a mutation or other genotype that is scientifically or medically believed to cause a disease, disorder, or syndrome, if the information is obtained from a genetic test.

(12B) “Genetic test” means an analysis of human chromosomes, genes, gene products, or genetic information that is used to identify the presence or absence of inherited or congenital alterations in genetic material that are associated with disease or illness. A genetic test shall not include a test for the presence of illegal drugs, routine physical measurements, or chemical, blood or urine analysis, unless conducted purposefully to obtain genetic information.

(12C) “Health benefit plan” means any accident and health insurance policy or certificate, hospital and medical services corporation contract, health maintenance organization subscriber contract, plan provided by a multiple employer welfare arrangement, or plan provided by another benefit arrangement. The term “health care benefit plan” does not mean accident only, credit or disability insurance; coverage of Medicare services or federal employee benefit plans, pursuant to contracts with the United States government; Medicare supplemental or long-term care insurance; dental only or vision only insurance; specified disease insurance; hospital confinement indemnity coverage; limited benefit health coverage; coverage issued as supplemental to liability insurance, insurance arising out of workers compensation or similar law; automobile medical payment insurance; medical expense and loss of income benefits; insurance under which benefits are payable with or without regard to fault and that is statutorily required to be contained in any liability insurance policy or equivalent self-insurance; or life insurance.

(12D) “Health insurer” means any person that provides one or more health benefits plans, or insurance in the District of Columbia, including an insurer, a hospital and medical services corporation, a fraternal benefits society, a health maintenance organization, a multiple employer welfare arrangement, or any other person providing a plan of health insurance subject to the authority of the Commissioner of the Department of Insurance, Securities, and Banking.

(13) “Hearing tribunal” means members of the Commission, or 1 or more hearing examiners, appointed by the Commission to conduct a hearing.

(13A) "Homeless" shall have the same meaning as provided in § 4-751.01(18).

(14) “Housing business” means a business operated under the authority of a license issued by the Mayor, or other authorized District agent, pursuant to § 47-2828 and the regulations promulgated thereunder.

(14A) “Intrafamily offense” means an offense as defined in § 16-1001(8).

(15) “Labor organization” means any organization, agency, employee representation committee, group, association, or plan in which employees participate directly or indirectly; and which exists for the purpose, in whole or in part, of dealing with employers, or any agent thereof, concerning grievances, labor disputes, wages, rates of pay, hours, or other terms, conditions, or privileges of employment; and any conference, general committee, joint or system board, or joint council, which is subordinate to a national or international organization.

(15A) "Living arrangement" means the cohabitation of any number of related or unrelated persons in the same household.

(16) "Make public" means disclosure to the public or to the news media of any personal or business data, documents, information, records, or reports obtained during the course of a complaint filed under the provisions of this unit. The term "make public" does not include:

(A) The publication of EEO-1, EEO-2, or EEO-3 reports as required by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission;

(B) The provision of any data, documents, information, records, or reports in the course of any administrative or judicial proceeding under this unit or any judicial proceeding under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, approved July 2, 1964 (78 Stat. 253; 42 U.S.C. § 2000e et seq.), or Title VIII or IX of the Civil Rights Act of 1968, approved April 11, 1968 (82 Stat. 81; 42 U.S.C § 3601 et seq.), involving such data, documents, information, records, or reports; or

(C) The access to such data, documents, information, records, or reports by personnel of the Office, members of the Commission, or personnel of the Attorney General pursuant to section 316a or for the Attorney General's defense and enforcement of the Office's investigations or the Commission's decisions and orders, or parties to a proceeding before the Office, or their representatives, after the closure of the case and passage of the reconsideration period; or

(D) The publication of aggregated data from individual reports, such that personally identifiable information is indeterminable.

(17) “Marital status” means the state of being married, in a domestic partnership, single, divorced, separated, or widowed and the usual conditions associated therewith, including pregnancy or parenthood.

(18) “Matriculation” means the condition of being enrolled in a college, or university; or in a business, nursing, professional, secretarial, technical or vocational school; or in an adult education program.

(19) “Office” means the District of Columbia Office of Human Rights, established by § 2-1411.01.

(20)(A) “Owner” means 1 of the following:

(i) Any person, or any one of a number of persons in whom is vested all or any part of the legal or equitable ownership, dominion, or title to any real property;

(ii) The committee, conservator, or any other legal guardian of a person who for any reason is non sui juris, in whom is vested the legal or equitable ownership, dominion or title to any real property; or

(iii) A trustee, elected or appointed or required by law to execute a trust, other than a trustee under a deed of trust to secure the payment of money; or one who, as agent of, or fiduciary, or officer appointed by the court for the estate of the person defined in sub-subparagraph (i) of this subparagraph shall have charge, care or control of any real property.

(B) The term “owner” shall also include the lessee, the sublessee, assignee, managing agent, or other person having the right of ownership or possession of, or the right to sell, rent or lease, any real property.

(21) “Person” means any individual, firm, partnership, mutual company, joint-stock company, corporation, association, organization, unincorporated organization, labor union, government agency, incorporated society, statutory or common-law trust, estate, executor, administrator, receiver, trustee, conservator, liquidator, trustee in bankruptcy, committee, assignee, officer, employee, principal or agent, legal or personal representative, real estate broker, real estate salesperson, property manager, or any agent or representative of any of the foregoing.

(22) “Personal appearance” means the outward appearance of any person, irrespective of sex, with regard to bodily condition or characteristics, manner or style of dress, and manner or style of personal grooming, including, but not limited to, hair style and beards. It shall not relate, however, to the requirement of cleanliness, uniforms, or prescribed standards, when uniformly applied for admittance to a public accommodation, or when uniformly applied to a class of employees for a reasonable business purpose; or when such bodily conditions or characteristics, style or manner of dress or personal grooming presents a danger to the health, welfare or safety of any individual.

(23) Repealed.

(24) “Place of public accommodation” means any person or place that provides, to a person in the District, access to an accommodation, service, or good, whether or not that person or place maintains a physical location in the District or charges for those goods or services, such as inns, taverns, road houses, hotels, motels, whether conducted for the entertainment of transient guests or for the accommodation of those seeking health, recreation or rest; restaurants or eating houses, or any place where food is sold for consumption on the premises; buffets, saloons, barrooms, or any store, park or enclosure where spirituous or malt liquors are sold; ice cream parlors, confectioneries, soda fountains and all stores where ice cream, ice and fruit preparation or their derivatives, or where beverages of any kind are retailed for consumption on the premises; wholesale and retail stores, and establishments dealing with goods or services of any kind, including, but not limited to, the credit facilities thereof; banks, savings and loan associations, establishments of mortgage bankers and brokers, all other financial institutions, and credit information bureaus; insurance companies and establishments of insurance policy brokers; dispensaries, clinics, hospitals, bath-houses, swimming pools, laundries and all other cleaning establishments; barber shops, beauty parlors, theaters, motion picture houses, airdromes, roof gardens, music halls, race courses, skating rinks, amusement and recreation parks, trailer camps, resort camps, fairs, bowling alleys, golf courses, gymnasiums, shooting galleries, billiards and pool parlors; garages, all public conveyances operated on land or water or in the air, as well as the stations and terminals thereof; travel or tour advisory services, agencies or bureaus; public halls and public elevators of buildings and structures, occupied by 2 or more tenants, or by the owner and 1 or more tenants. Such term shall not include any institution, club, or place of accommodation which is in its nature distinctly private except, that any such institution, club or place of accommodation shall be subject to the provisions of § 2-1402.67. A place of accommodation, institution, or club shall not be considered in its nature distinctly private if the place of accommodation, institution, or club:

(A) Has 350 or more members;

(B) Serves meals on a regular basis; and

(C) Regularly receives payment for dues, fees, use of space, facilities, services, meals, or beverages directly or indirectly from or on behalf of nonmembers for the furtherance of trade or business.

(25) “Political affiliation” means the state of belonging to or endorsing any political party.

(26) "Real estate broker" or "real estate salesperson" or "property manager" means a person who is licensed under Chapter 28 of Title 47 as a real estate broker, a real estate salesperson, or a property manager. The term "real estate broker" includes a real estate organization.

(27) “Real Estate Commission” means the Real Estate Commission of the District of Columbia established by § 42-1739 [repealed].

(27A) "Reproductive health decision" includes a decision by an individual, an individual's dependent, or an individual's spouse related to:

(A) The use or intended use of a particular drug, device, or medical service, including contraception or fertility control; or

(B) The planned initiation or termination of a pregnancy.

(27B) "Sealed eviction record" means an eviction record that has been sealed pursuant to § 42-3505.09.

(27C) "Self-managed abortion product" means a medication that is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for use, either alone or in combination with other approved medication, in terminating a pregnancy, and that is made available to one or more pregnant individuals other than through the licensed operation of a health care provider or health care professional.

(27D) "Sexual offense" shall have the same meaning as provided in § 4-555.01(15).

(28) “Sexual orientation” means male or female homosexuality, heterosexuality and bisexuality, by preference or practice.

(29) “Source of income” means the point, the cause, or the form of the origination, or transmittal of gains of property accruing to a person in a stated period of time; including, but not limited to, money and property secured from any occupation, profession or activity, from any contract, agreement or settlement, from federal or District payments, court-ordered payments, from payments received as gifts, bequests, annuities, life insurance policies and compensation for illness or injury, except in a case where conflict of interest may exist.

(29A) "Stalking" means an act prohibited by § 22-3133.

(30) “Transaction in real property” means the exhibiting, listing, advertising, negotiating, agreeing to transfer or transferring, whether by sale, lease, sublease, rent, assignment or other agreement, any interest in real property or improvements thereon, including, but not limited to, leaseholds and other real chattels.

(31) “Unlawful discriminatory practice” means those discriminatory practices which are so specified in subchapter II of Unit A of this chapter. “Unlawful discriminatory practice” shall include harassment engaged in for discriminatory reasons specified in § 2-1402.11(a).